Ethics

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Ethics

By Benedict de Spinoza

Notes

1 "Affectiones"

2 "Forma"

3 "Animata"

4 A Baconian phrase. Nov. Org. Aph. 100. [Pollock, p. 126, n.]

5 Conscientiæ morsus—thus rendered by Mr. Pollock.

6 By "men" in this and the following propositions, I mean men whom we regard without any particular emotion.

7 So Van Vloten and Bruder. The Dutch version and Camerer read, "an internal cause." "Honor" = Gloria.

8 See previous endnote.

9 Ovid, "Amores," II. xix. 4,5. Spinoza transposes the verses.

 "Speremus pariter, pariter metuamus amantes;
  Ferreus est, si quis, quod sinit alter, amat."

10 This is possible, though the human mind is part of the divine intellect, as I have shown in II.xiii.note.

11 Gloria.

12 Ov. Met. vii.20, "Video meliora proboque, Deteriora sequor."

13 Honestas

14 Land reads: "Quod ipsius agendi potentia juvatur"—which I have translated above. He suggests as alternative readings to `quod', 'quo' (= whereby) and 'quodque' (= and that).

15 "Maltim praesens minus prae majori futuro." (Van Vloten). Bruder reads: "Malum praesens minus, quod causa est faturi alicujus mali." The last word of the latter is an obvious misprint, and is corrected by the Dutch translator into "majoris boni." (Pollock, p. 268, note.)

16 Continuo. Rendered "constantly" by Mr. Pollock on the ground that the classical meaning of the word does not suit the context. I venture to think, however, that a tolerable sense may be obtained without doing violence to Spinoza's scholarship.

17 Affectiones. Camerer reads affectus—emotions

 

 

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